View of the University of Ingolstadt where Johann Eck and Balthasar Hübmaier taught. Argula von Grumbach challenged the faculty here to debate her evangelical theology.
The Radical Reformation consists of the most diverse group of theologians of any of the other movements. In fact, the only characteristic that all radical reformers share is their rejection of the Catholic Church and the protestant churches. In his classic, The Radical Reformation, George Huntston Williams classified the radicals as Anabaptists, Spiritualists, or Evangelical Rationalists. Anabaptists such as Menno Simons and Balthasar Hübmaier were pacifists who rejected infant baptism and were strict Biblicists. Caspar Schwenkfeld was a Spiritualist who emphasized the inner witness of the Spirit to such an extent that he rejected the “external matters” such as baptism and the Lord’s Supper as unnecessary. Evangelical Rationalist Michael Servetus emphasized the use of reason in addition to Scripture. This led to his rejection of the Trinity and his execution as a heretic in Geneva.
WorksThe Twelve Articles of the Peasants
The Schleitheim Confession
First Adult Baptism
The Münster Rebellion
The Schleitheim Meeting
MoreChronology of the Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation Links
Radical Reformation Album
Hymns of the Radical Reformation
Critiques of the Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation Quiz
© 2004 Mark Gstohl, PhD.